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Before we start, look at your function keys for a moment. You probably notice that they already have designated functions like adjusting the speaker volume or screen brightness.

 So if you want a specific ‘F’ key to perform its real function, you’ll need to hold down the function key first which is designated by Fn. This will look like Fn + F#.

F1 opens the Help screen for almost every program.

F2 lets you rename any file or folder you select.

F3 opens a search feature on whatever application you have open at that time.

Alt/Option + F4 will close whatever window you are on.

F5 refreshes or reloads the page you’re on.

F6 (in most Internet browsers) moves the cursor to the address bar.

F7 will spell- and grammar-check a document in Microsoft applications like Word.

F8 gives you access to the boot menu in Windows when you turn on the computer, or displays thumbnail images of all workspaces on a Mac.

F9 refreshes Microsoft Word documents or sends and receives emails in Microsoft Outlook, or displays thumbnail images of all windows in a single workspace.

F10 opens the menu bar of whatever application you are in, or shows all open windows of whatever program is currently open on your Mac.

F11 enters and exists full-screen mode in Internet browsers, or displays the Desktop on a Mac.

F12 opens the ‘Save As’ dialog box in Microsoft Word, or displays a Mac’s dashboard including, e.g., the calculator or calendar applications.

For these to work, press the Ctrl or Command button followed by the next one(s).

+ O to open a file
+ N to open a new document
+ A to select all the text on a page or document
+ C to copy highlighted text
+ X to cut highlighted text
+ V to paste copied or cut text
+ P to print the document you are in
+ S to save a file or document
+ W to close a window
+ Q to close an entire app (Mac only)

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